Antonine plague symptoms

The Antonine Plague: A Re-evaluation of its Effects on the Economic Structure, Military Capability, and Religious Thought of the Roman Empire.Based upon the translation of Greek terms and vocabulary used by Thucydides, the second set of descriptors indicated no period of incubation with the illness striking immediately and peaking within 7-9 days.

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The horror and fear faced by medieval people confronted with the bizarre and almost totally unknown symptoms of Plague is.Smallpox emerged as the most likely culprit followed by typhus and bubonic plague.In order for the disease to spread as fast and wide while causing such widespread destruction of human life, the epidemic was most likely respiratory in nature thus making an animal or insect reservoir the likely source.

Cunningham returned to the possibility that the epidemic in Athens resulted from some type of fungal poisoning.The recent uncovering of the mass graves dating from the ancient period offered new hope that a definitive diagnosis was at hand as the modern techniques of DNA analysis would finally lay to rest the nearly 2,000 year controversy.All of the symptoms offered by Thucydides could fit nearly any disease provided a researcher was willing to ignore some of the symptoms.Salway and Dell turned their attention to food and water as the possible sources for the illness.An earlier suggestion of ergot poisoning was ruled out as that particular fungus occurs mainly on rye which the majority of Athenians did not consume.By most accounts, the plague which struck Athens was the most lethal episode of illness in the period of Classical Greece history.

Start studying Plagues Final Exam. Learn. Which of the following diseases has symptoms of fluid filled blisters on the entire. d. the Antonine Plague e.The authors suggest that leptospirosis, a bacterial infection spread by dogs and cattle, exists in conditions prevalent in Athens: high concentration of population, poor living conditions and poor food supply.The possibility that the Athenian plague was a combination of diseases was a promising diagnosis especially if all of the other diseases, on their own, were ruled out as potential sources for the epidemic.Thucydides (trans. B.Jowett), History of the Peloponnesian War (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1900), 2.42-2.462.55-2.Bos KI, Stevens P, Nieselt K, Poinar HN, DeWitte SN, et al. (2012) Yersinia pestis: New Evidence for an Old Infection.McArthur replied that typhus was not spread by rats but by lice.

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The absence of any description by Thucydides of scars, most often associated as a lasting consequence of smallpox, resulted from Thucydides following the Hippocratic School of disease theory which emphasized prognosis not diagnosis.Specifically, the toxin ergot, taken in small or large doses, could affect many people simultaneously.

For nearly 2500 years, historians and scholars have attempted to identify exactly what disease swept Athens resulting in so many deaths.Scarlet fever was ruled out as a source as it only affects humans, not animals as mentioned by Thucydides, and generally has a very low mortality rate (at least by the 20th century CE although it could have been higher in earlier times).Plague of Justinian Very tiny remnants of human tissue from teeth, bone-marrow or other tissue are nowadays enough to do rapid and cost-effective DNA sequencing.Student practice questions-Mid-term.doc. View Full Document 9.

In the case of bubonic plague, it remains a good candidate as it affects both human and animal.

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Disease and plagues have rocked world. chest pain and blood in the mucus or saliva were the main symptoms of pneumonic plague. The Antonine Plague,.The changing nature of the disease (both the particular disease and its symptoms can change over time) and the lack of knowledge about Greek medicine would make an exact diagnosis problematic.There is the likely possibility that the disease which scourged Athens is either extinct or, after 24 centuries, the microbe responsible has changed sufficiently, along with various symptoms, that it is simply not recognizable today.

The symptoms of ATA appear in about 2-3 weeks with death occurring within 6-8 weeks.Earlier scholars suggested ergot but their diagnoses were relegated to footnotes.The disease swept north and west through Egypt and Libya across the Mediterranean Sea into Persia and Greece.He did note that physicians attempted numerous cures and remedies which failed.

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As the illness progressed, insomnia, internal burning sensations and leg cramps afflict the sufferer.Shrewsbury eliminated smallpox as people stricken with that illness would not be capable of physically moving from their beds much less throw themselves into cold water as Thucydides remarked some did.Those who survived the full run of the illness often suffered from disfigurement of their genitals, fingers and toes (which were sometimes lost), blindness, and memory loss (of others as well as themselves).The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War.In the 2nd year of the Peloponnesian War, 430 BCE, an outbreak of plague erupted in Athens.